About

The Genomes and Genetics Department was formed in 2006, mainly from the teams of the Structure and Dynamics of Genomes Department led by Bernard Dujon.

The department has a staff of 170, working in 13 research structures, 4 technological platforms housed in the Institut Pasteur Genopole, and 6 associated research groups. The teams explore experimental and informatics approaches to determine the nature of genetic information in organisms of increasing complexity, ranging from bacteria and yeasts to humans.

Teams in the Genomes and Genetics Department work in 4 main areas:

  • Evolutionary genomics
  • The Three R’s (Recombination, Replication and Repair)
  • Functional and regulatory networks
  • Host–pathogen interactions

The teams use the full range of genomic and post-genomic approaches to study the various models that can be bacteria (chiefly tuberculosis bacilli, Streptococci, Vibrio, and Legionella), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Candida albicans) or human models. The different pathogenic and model organisms are studied in depth with the aim of understanding how they live and what determines their pathogenic potential. Yeasts are studied, both for their own sake and as archetypes to facilitate our understanding of human genetics.

The department is also investigating the evolution of infectious agents and the selective pressures they have exerted on human genes over time.

The progress of these different research programs benefits greatly from developments in new sequencing and genotyping techniques which we are closely involved in given our links with the Institut Pasteur Genopole.

The Genomes and Genetics Department is also developing major in silico approaches in biological system modeling and bioinformatics analysis in addition to its own research projects and providing support to the Institut Pasteur’s various research structures in conjunction with the CIB.

The department was led by Antoine Danchin between 2006 and 2009.

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Training on the Agilent Bioanalyzer

The Transcriptome and Epigenome platform (PF2) offers training on the Agilent Bioanalyzer Thursday, february 6 2017 from 14.00  to 15.00 am. (BioTop building, 2d floor, right, room 2.05. Warning: Lab coats must be worn […]

2017-02-06 14:00:00 2017-02-06 15:00:00 Europe/London Training on the Agilent Bioanalyzer The Transcriptome and Epigenome platform (PF2) offers training on the Agilent Bioanalyzer Thursday, february 6 2017 from 14.00  to 15.00 am. (BioTop building, 2d floor, right, room 2.05. Warning: Lab coats must be worn […] 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris, France

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Spite and discrimination in the social microbe Myxococcus xanthus
Olaya RENDUELES GARCIA
INSTITUT PASTEUR
Unité Génomique Evolutive des Microbes

SEMINAIRE DU DEPARTEMENT DE MICROBIOLOGIE CONJOINT AVEC DEPARTEMENT GENOMES & GENETIQUE

ABSTRACT

Competition is rampant in the microbial world and is expected to strongly shape patterns of natural diversity. But how it does so, is often difficult to understand. To investigate this, I used Myxococcus xanthus, a cooperative soil-dwelling bacterium characterized by an extreme diversity, both at the phenotypic and genotypic level.It was previously shown that genotypes co-residing in a local population exhibit intense hierarchical antagonism when mixed together. My work showed that strong positive frequency-dependent selection during competition can maintain diversity. Initially weaker genotypes (i.e., genotypes with lower fitness) outcompeted stronger genotypes when they were numerically superior. This work also revealed that diversity was dependent on the existence of social incompatibilities across genotypes.
One type of social incompatibility is kin discrimination (KD), that is, the ability to recognize self vs non-self. KD is also important for the maintenance of cooperation because it ensures ensure high genetic relatedness among interacting genotypes and limits the spread of cheaters (genotypes that benefit from cooperation without paying their “fair share” of its cost). I used a long-term experimental evolution system to study the evolutionary origins and molecular mechanisms of kin discrimination. The generic process of adaptation to many different environments and irrespective of the selective pressure, is sufficient to repeatedly generate KD between evolved populations and their common ancestor. Further, emergence of KD followed different temporal patterns, implying diverse genetic mechanisms. The latter was further supported by the mutation-accumulation patterns.
Taken together, positive frequency-dependent antagonism and kin discrimination maintain natural diversity and cooperation in M. xanthus.

Auditorium du Centre François Jacob – vendredi 27 janvier 2017 11:30

Contact: Jean-Marc GHIGO (jean-marc.ghigo@pasteur.fr)

 

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