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© Matteo Bonazzi, Edith Gouin
Observation en immunofluorescence d'une cellule infectée par Listeria monocytogenes. En bleu: marquage des protéines de surface de Listeria qui permet de visualiser les bactéries. En rouge et vert: marquage de l'actine, une protéine qui forme le cytosquelette des cellules. Les Listeria utilisent l'actine cellulaire pour former des "comêtes" et se déplacer à l'intérieur des cellules qu'elles infectent. Cell infected by Listeria monocytogenes. The surface proteins (in blue) of Listeria enable us to view the bacteria. Actin, a constituent protein of cells, is shown in red and green.
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Published in Science translational medicine - 27 May 2015

Guenin-Macé L, Baron L, Chany AC, Tresse C, Saint-Auret S, Jönsson F, Le Chevalier F, Bruhns P, Bismuth G, Hidalgo-Lucas S, Bisson JF, Blanchard N, Demangel C

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 26019221

Sci Transl Med 2015 May;7(289):289ra85

Inflammation adversely affects the health of millions of people worldwide, and there is an unmet medical need for better anti-inflammatory drugs. We evaluated the therapeutic interest of mycolactone, a polyketide-derived macrolide produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Bacterial production of mycolactone in human skin causes a combination of ulcerative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas ulcer formation is mediated by the proapoptotic activity of mycolactone on skin cells via hyperactivation of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins, analgesia results from neuronal hyperpolarization via signaling through angiotensin II type 2 receptors. Mycolactone also blunts the capacity of immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators by an independent mechanism of protein synthesis blockade. In an attempt to isolate the structural determinants of mycolactone’s immunosuppressive activity, we screened a library of synthetic subunits of mycolactone for inhibition of cytokine production by activated T cells. The minimal structure retaining immunosuppressive activity was a truncated version of mycolactone, missing one of the two core-branched polyketide chains. This compound inhibited the inflammatory cytokine responses of human primary cells at noncytotoxic doses and bound to angiotensin II type 2 receptors comparably to mycolactone in vitro. Notably, it was considerably less toxic than mycolactone in human primary dermal fibroblasts modeling ulcerative activity. In mouse models of human diseases, it conferred systemic protection against chronic skin inflammation and inflammatory pain, with no apparent side effects. In addition to establishing the anti-inflammatory potency of mycolactone in vivo, our study therefore highlights the translational potential of mycolactone core-derived structures as prospective immunosuppressants.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26019221

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