Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 38212337
Lien DOI – 10.1038/s41467-023-44389-3
Nat Commun 2024 Jan; 15(1): 178
HIV remission can be achieved in some people, called post-treatment HIV controllers, after antiretroviral treatment discontinuation. Treatment initiation close to the time of infection was suggested to favor post-treatment control, but the circumstances and mechanisms leading to this outcome remain unclear. Here we evaluate the impact of early (week 4) vs. late (week 24 post-infection) treatment initiation in SIVmac251-infected male cynomolgus macaques receiving 2 years of therapy before analytical treatment interruption. We show that early treatment strongly promotes post-treatment control, which is not related to a lower frequency of infected cells at treatment interruption. Rather, early treatment favors the development of long-term memory CD8+ T cells with enhanced proliferative and SIV suppressive capacity that are able to mediate a robust secondary-like response upon viral rebound. Our model allows us to formally demonstrate a link between treatment initiation during primary infection and the promotion of post-treatment control and provides results that may guide the development of new immunotherapies for HIV remission.