I prepared my PhD in the laboratory of Structure and Expression of Bacterial Genome directed by Dr. Françoise Le Hégarat at the University Paris XI where I studied histone-like proteins of the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. I obtained my PhD in 1998. The same year I joined the laboratory of Prof. Charles J. Dorman in Trinity College Dublin as a European Post-doctoral fellow. During these three years my research has been focused on the regulation of virulence gene expression in the pathogenic bacteria Shigella flexneri. In 2001, I came back to France on a postdoctoral proposition in the 5 years group recently created by Dr. Jean-Marc Ghigo. I participated to the implementation of the G5 Genetics of Biofilms Laboratory. In 2003, I was recruited at the Institut Pasteur as Assistant Professor (Chargé de Recherche) and have been promoted Associate Professor in 2014. In the Ghigo’s laboratory, my work focuses on two biofilm-specific phenomena: initial adhesion to surfaces or between bacteria, which is a key step of any colonization process, and biofilms recalcitrance towards antibiotic , a major biofilm behavior responsible for chronic and recurrent infections in clinic. Beyond the importance of a better fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these two biofilm-properties , these studies have also been motivated by my desire to translate, when possible, some aspects of my work into clinically relevant situations involving biofilms. Since 2011 I’m strongly involved in teaching at the Institut Pasteur and I have been appointed Co-director of the Institut Pasteur Microbiology Course in 2014.