Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 35931114
Link to DOI – S0021-9258(22)00780-310.1016/j.jbc.2022.102338
J Biol Chem 2022 Aug; 298(9): 102338
The obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis obtain all nutrients from the cytoplasm of their epithelial host cells and stimulate glucose uptake by these cells. They even hijack host ATP, exerting a strong metabolic pressure on their host at the peak of the proliferative stage of their developmental cycle. However, it is largely unknown whether infection modulates the metabolism of the host cell. Also, the reliance of the bacteria on host metabolism might change during their progression through their biphasic developmental cycle. Herein, using primary epithelial cells and 2 cell lines of nontumoral origin, we showed that between the 2 main ATP-producing pathways of the host, oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) remained stable and glycolysis was slightly increased. Inhibition of either pathway strongly reduced bacterial proliferation, implicating that optimal bacterial growth required both pathways to function at full capacity. While we found C. trachomatis displayed some degree of energetic autonomy in the synthesis of proteins expressed at the onset of infection, functional host glycolysis was necessary for the establishment of early inclusions, whereas OxPhos contributed less. These observations correlated with the relative contributions of the pathways in maintaining ATP levels in epithelial cells, with glycolysis contributing the most. Altogether, this work highlights the dependence of C. trachomatis on both host glycolysis and OxPhos for efficient bacterial replication. However, ATP consumption appears at equilibrium with the normal production capacity of the host and the bacteria, so that no major shift between these pathways is required to meet bacterial needs.