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Published in Clinical infectious diseases - 20 Apr 2021

Charlier C, Kermorvant-Duchemin E, Perrodeau E, Moura A, Maury MM, Bracq-Dieye H, Thouvenot P, Valès G, Leclercq A, Ravaud P, Lecuit M, ,

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 33876229

Link to DOI – 10.1093/cid/ciab337

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr; ():

Listeriosis is caused by the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. It can present as a maternal-neonatal infection. We implemented the nationwide prospective cohort MONALISA and analyzed the features of neonatal listeriosis.We studied all neonates born alive from mothers with microbiologically-proven maternal-neonatal listeriosis enrolled from November 2009 to December 2017. We analyzed presentation, neonatal outcome at discharge and predictors of severe presentation and outcome. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01520597).We studied 189 infants. 133/189 (70%) had abnormal clinical status at birth, including acute respiratory distress in 106/189 (56%). 132/189 (70%) infants developed early-onset listeriosis and 12/189 (6%) late onset listeriosis who all presented with acute meningitis. 17/189 (9%) had major adverse outcomes: 3% death (5/189), 6% (12/189) severe brain injury, 2% (3/189) severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 15/17 in infants born < 34 weeks of gestation (p < 0.0001 versus infants born ≥ 34 weeks of gestation). Maternal antimicrobial treatment ≥ 1 day before delivery was associated with a significant decrease of infants’ severity (resulting in significantly less inotropic drugs, fluid resuscitation, or mechanical ventilation requirement), OR 0.23 [95% confidence interval CI 0.09-0.51], p < 0.0001).Antenatal maternal antimicrobial treatment is associated with reduced neonatal listeriosis severity, justifying the prescription of preemptive maternal antimicrobial therapy when maternal-fetal listeriosis is suspected. Neonatal outcome is better than reported earlier, and its major determinant is gestational age at birth.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33876229