Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 27530444
Link to DOI – 10.1186/s12879-016-1700-2
BMC Infect Dis 2016 Aug; 16(): 422
As has occurred in many regions worldwide, in 2012 the incidence of pertussis increased in Perú. This epidemiologic situation has been associated with a waning vaccine-induced immunity and the adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccine-induced immunity along with improved diagnostic methods.The study comprised a total of 840 pertussis-suspected cases reported in Perú during 2012. We summarize here the distribution of pertussis cases according to age and immunization status along with the immunization-coverage rate. Laboratory diagnosis was performed by culture test and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). B. pertussis bacteria recovered from infected patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the DNA sequencing of the pertussis-toxin (promoter and subunit A), pertactin, and fimbriae (fim2 and fim3) genes.From the total pertussis-suspected cases, 191 (22.7 %) infections were confirmed by real-time PCR and 18 through cultivation of B. pertussis (2.1 %), while one infection of B. parapertussis (0.11 %) was also detected by culture. Pertussis was significantly higher in patients that had had 0-3 vaccine doses (pentavalent vaccine alone) than in those who had had 4-5 vaccine doses (pentavalent plus DwPT boosters) at 94.3 vs. 5.7 %, respectively (p < 0.00001). The relative risk (RR) for patients with 4-5 doses compared to those with fewer than 4 doses or no dose was 0.23 (95 % Confidence Interval: 0.11-0.44), while the vaccine effectiveness was 77 % and coverage 50.5 %. Genetic analysis of B. pertussis isolates from different Peruvian regions detected two clonal groups as identified by PFGE. Those two groups corresponded to the B. pertussis genotypes emerging worldwide ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2 or 9-fim3-1 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2 or 9-fim3-2.Two emerging B. pertussis genotypes similar to isolates involved in worldwide epidemics were detected in Perú. Low vaccine coverage (<50 %) and genetic divergence between the vaccine-producing strain and the local isolates could contribute to this pertussal epidemic.