Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 31833228
Link to DOI – 10.15252/embr.201949351
EMBO Rep 2020 02; 21(2): e49351
The effect of anti-HIV-1 antibodies on complement activation at the surface of infected cells remains partly understood. Here, we show that a subset of anti-Envelope (Env) broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), targeting the CD4 binding site and the V3 loop, triggers C3 deposition and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) on Raji cells engineered to express high surface levels of HIV-1 Env. Primary CD4 T cells infected with laboratory-adapted or primary HIV-1 strains and treated with bNAbs are susceptible to C3 deposition but not to rapid CDC. The cellular protein CD59 and viral proteins Vpu and Nef protect infected cells from CDC mediated by bNAbs or by polyclonal IgGs from HIV-positive individuals. However, complement deposition accelerates the disappearance of infected cells within a few days of culture. Altogether, our results uncover the contribution of complement to the antiviral activity of anti-HIV-1 bNAbs.