Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of several arboviruses of medical significance. Its vectorial capacity is influenced by manifold genetic and environmental factors, including the microbiota. Disentangling genetic and non-genetic drivers of Ae. aegypti microbiota and vectorial capacity is currently hindered by the lack of genetic tools. In this project, we will establish the first genetic panel for Ae. aegypti by creating inbred lines from a natural population in French Guiana. Building on our expertise in Ae. aegypti genomics and biology, we will use this genetic panel to monitor genomic and microbiome evolution during the inbreeding process, and to investigate the genetic basis of the microbiota and vectorial capacity. Knowledge generated by this project will support the development of novel entomological strategies to combat emerging arboviruses. It will also lay the foundation for a future genetic reference panel of Ae. aegypti as a community resource for quantitative genetics research.