DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2016.08.011 show
The initiation of inflammatory responses is typically triggered by a local event engaging sentinel cells, leading to the subsequent recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes. This process can result in the elimination of the initial cause of tissue disruption, the clearance of dying cells, and establishes a path toward tissue resolution. Cytokines mediate cell-to-cell communication, acting to recruit immune cells to inflammatory microenvironment and drive the required effector mechanisms. Despite the inherent complexity of these processes in natura, analyses of inflammation have typically focused on the decision-making circuits within cells, and, in most cases, have been restricted to single cell types (Amit et al., 2009, Jovanovic et al., 2015, Lee et al., 2014). Several other studies have assessed in vivo responses to vaccination, typically performing sampling over time to assess induced protein, mRNA expression, and seroconversion (Banchereau et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Tsang et al., 2014). While informative, these latter approaches permit the testing of only one stimulation condition per individual and are restricted to qualified or experimental vaccines. To properly account for inter-individual variability in the deconvolution of complex immune responses, both simple (synthetic or purified ligand) and complex (live or heat-killed microbe), stimulations must be performed in the same donor and at the same time, and standardized approaches for all steps from sample collection to analysis must be applied.