Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 24100029
J. Biol. Chem. 2013 Nov;288(47):33722-37
Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene result in various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. NEMO function is mediated by two distal ubiquitin binding domains located in the regulatory C-terminal domain of the protein: the coiled-coil 2-leucine zipper (CC2-LZ) domain and the zinc finger (ZF) domain. Here, we investigated the effect of the D406V mutation found in the NEMO ZF of an ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency patients. This point mutation does not impair the folding of NEMO ZF or mono-ubiquitin binding but is sufficient to alter NEMO function, as NEMO-deficient fibroblasts and Jurkat T lymphocytes reconstituted with full-length D406V NEMO lead to partial and strong defects in NF-κB activation, respectively. To further characterize the ubiquitin binding properties of NEMO ZF, we employed di-ubiquitin (di-Ub) chains composed of several different linkages (Lys-48, Lys-63, and linear (Met-1-linked)). We showed that the pathogenic mutation preferentially impairs the interaction with Lys-63 and Met-1-linked di-Ub, which correlates with its ubiquitin binding defect in vivo. Furthermore, sedimentation velocity and gel filtration showed that NEMO ZF, like other NEMO related-ZFs, binds mono-Ub and di-Ub with distinct stoichiometries, indicating the presence of a new Ub site within the NEMO ZF. Extensive mutagenesis was then performed on NEMO ZF and characterization of mutants allowed the proposal of a structural model of NEMO ZF in interaction with a Lys-63 di-Ub chain.