Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30131796
Link to DOI – 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01833
Front Microbiol 2018 ; 9(): 1833
Faithful vertical transmission of genetic information, especially of essential core genes, is a prerequisite for bacterial survival. Hence, replication of all the replicons is tightly controlled to ensure that all daughter cells get the same genome copy as their mother cell. Essential core genes are very often carried by the main chromosome. However they can occasionally be found on secondary chromosomes, recently renamed chromids. Chromids have evolved from non-essential megaplasmids, and further acquired essential core genes and a genomic signature closed to that of the main chromosome. All chromids carry a plasmidic replication origin, belonging so far to either the iterons or repABC type. Based on these differences, two categories of chromids have been distinguished. In this review, we focus on the replication initiation controls of these two types of chromids. We show that the sophisticated mechanisms controlling their replication evolved from their plasmid counterparts to allow a timely controlled replication, occurring once per cell cycle.