Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 36334594
Link to DOI – 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100804
Cell Rep Med 2022 Nov; 3(11): 100804
Natural resistance to infection is an overlooked outcome after hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure. Between 1977 and 1979, 1,200 Rhesus D-negative Irish women were exposed to HCV-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. Here, we investigate why some individuals appear to resist infection despite exposure (exposed seronegative [ESN]). We screen HCV-resistant and -susceptible donors for anti-HCV adaptive immune responses using ELISpots and VirScan to profile antibodies against all know human viruses. We perform standardized ex vivo whole blood stimulation (TruCulture) assays with antiviral ligands and assess antiviral responses using NanoString transcriptomics and Luminex proteomics. We describe an enhanced TLR3-type I interferon response in ESNs compared with seropositive women. We also identify increased inflammatory cytokine production in response to polyIC in ESNs compared with seropositive women. These enhanced responses may have contributed to innate immune protection against HCV infection in our cohort.