Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 33771887
Lien DOI – eabd434410.1126/sciimmunol.abd4344
Sci Immunol 2021 Mar; 6(57):
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy relies on the activity of a large pool of tumor-targeting cytotoxic effectors. Whether CAR T cells act autonomously or require interactions with the tumor microenvironment (TME) remains incompletely understood. Here, we report an essential cross-talk between CAR T cell subsets and the TME for tumor control in an immunocompetent mouse B cell lymphoma model of anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we revealed substantial modification of the TME during CAR T cell therapy. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced by CAR T cells not only enhanced endogenous T and natural killer cell activity but was also essential for sustaining CAR T cell cytotoxicity, as revealed by intravital imaging. CAR T cell-derived IFN-γ facilitated host interleukin-12 production that supported host immune and CAR T cell responses. Compared with CD8+ CAR T cells, CD4+ CAR T cells were more efficient at host immune activation but less capable of direct tumor killing. In summary, CAR T cells do not act independently in vivo but rely instead on cytokine-mediated cross-talk with the TME for optimal activity. Invigorating CAR T cell interplay with the host represents an attractive strategy to prevent relapses after therapy.