Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30772378
Cell Syst 2019 Feb;
The immune system generates pathogen-tailored responses. The precise innate immune cell types and pathways that direct robust adaptive immune responses have not been fully characterized. By using fluorescent pathogens combined with massively parallel single-cell RNA-seq, we comprehensively characterized the initial 48 h of the innate immune response to diverse pathogens. We found that across all pathogens tested, most of the lymph node cell types and states showed little pathogen specificity. In contrast, the rare antigen-positive cells displayed pathogen-specific transcriptional programs as early as 24 h after immunization. In addition, mycobacteria activated a specific NK-driven IFNγ response. Depletion of NK cells and IFNγ showed that IFNγ initiated a monocyte-specific signaling cascade, leading to the production of major chemokines and cytokines that promote Th1 development. Our systems immunology approach sheds light on early events in innate immune responses and may help further development of safe and efficient vaccines.