Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 37505682
Link to DOI – 10.3390/toxins15070413
Toxins (Basel) 2023 Jun; 15(7):
The alarming symptoms attributed to several potent clostridial toxins enabled the early identification of the causative agent of tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene diseases, which belongs to the most famous species of pathogenic clostridia. Although Clostridioides difficile was identified early in the 20th century as producing important toxins, it was identified only 40 years later as the causative agent of important nosocomial diseases upon the advent of antibiotic therapies in hospital settings. Today, C. difficile is a leading public health issue, as it is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults. In particular, severe symptoms within the spectrum of C. difficile infections are directly related to the levels of toxins produced in the host. This highlights the importance of understanding the regulation of toxin synthesis in the pathogenicity process of C. difficile, whose regulatory factors in response to the gut environment were first identified at the Institut Pasteur. Subsequently, the work of other groups in the field contributed to further deciphering the complex mechanisms controlling toxin production triggered by the intestinal dysbiosis states during infection. This review summarizes the Pasteurian contribution to clostridial toxin regulation studies.