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© Research
Publication : Comptes rendus biologies

Reconstructing 50,000 years of human history from our DNA: lessons from modern genomics.

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Comptes rendus biologies - 02 Jul 2021

Rotival M, Cossart P, Quintana-Murci L,

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 34213855

Link to DOI – 10.5802/crbiol.55

C R Biol 2021 Jul; 344(2): 177-187

The advent of high throughput sequencing approaches and ancient DNA techniques have enabled reconstructing the history of human populations at an unprecedented level of resolution. The symposium from the French Academy of Sciences “50,000 ans d’épopée humaine dans notre ADN” has reviewed some of the latest contributions from the fields of genomics, archaeology, and linguistics to our understanding of >300,000 years of human history. DNA has revealed the richness of the human journey, from the deep divergences between human populations in Africa, to the first encounters of Homo Sapiens with other hominins on their way to Eurasia and the peopling of Remote Oceania. The symposium has also emphasized how migrations, cultural practices, and environmental pathogens have contributed to shape the genetic diversity of modern humans, through admixture, genetic drift or genetic adaptation. Finally, special attention was also given to how human behaviours have shaped the genome of other species, through the spreading of microbes and pathogens, as in the case of Yersinia Pestis, or through domestication, as elegantly demonstrated for dogs, horses, and apples. Altogether, this conference illustrated how the complex history of human populations is tightly linked with their contemporary genetic diversity that, in turn, has direct effects on their identity and health.L’avènement des approches de séquençage à haut débit et des techniques de séquençage de l’ADN ancien ont permis de reconstruire l’histoire des populations humaines à un niveau de résolution sans précédent. Le symposium de l’Académie des sciences « 50 000 ans d’épopée humaine dans notre ADN » a passé en revue certaines des dernières contributions de la génomique, de l’archéologie et de la linguistique à notre compréhension de plus de 300 000 ans d’histoire humaine. L’ADN a révélé la richesse du parcours humain, depuis les premières séparations entre populations humaines en Afrique jusqu’à la rencontre d’Homo sapiens avec d’autres hominidés sur leur chemin vers l’Eurasie et le peuplement de l’Océanie lointaine. Le symposium a également mis l’accent sur la façon dont les migrations, les pratiques culturelles et les agents pathogènes environnementaux ont contribué à façonner la diversité génétique des humains modernes, par le biais du brassage, de la dérive ou de l’adaptation génétique. Enfin, une attention particulière a également été accordée à la manière dont les comportements humains ont façonné le génome d’autres espèces, par la propagation de microbes et d’agents pathogènes, comme dans le cas de Yersinia pestis, ou par la domestication, comme cela a été démontré de manière élégante pour les chiens, les chevaux et les pommes. Dans l’ensemble, cette conférence a illustré comment la diversité génétique contemporaine des populations humaines est étroitement liée à leur histoire complexe et, à son tour, a des effets directs sur leur identité et leur santé.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34213855