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© Research
Publication : Biomolecular concepts

Recent advances in the characterization of Crl, the unconventional activator of the stress sigma factor σS/RpoS

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Biomolecular concepts - 16 May 2016

Cavaliere P, Norel F

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 27180360

Biomol Concepts 2016 May;

The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme is a multisubunit core enzyme associated with a σ factor that is required for promoter-specific transcription initiation. Besides a primary σ responsible for most of the gene expression during active growth, bacteria contain alternative σ factors that control adaptive responses. A recurring strategy in the control of σ factor activity is their sequestration by anti-sigma factors that occlude the RNAP binding determinants, reducing their activity. In contrast, the unconventional transcription factor Crl binds specifically to the alternative σ factor σS/RpoS, and favors its association with the core RNAP, thereby increasing its activity. σS is the master regulator of the general stress response that protects many Gram-negative bacteria from several harmful environmental conditions. It is also required for biofilm formation and virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, we discuss current knowledge on the regulation and function of Crl in Salmonella and Escherichia coli, two bacterial species in which Crl has been studied. We review recent advances in the structural characterization of the Crl-σS interaction that have led to a better understanding of this unusual mechanism of σ regulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27180360