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© A. Alanio, E. Perret
Prolifération de Cryptococcus neoformans dans des macrophages murins.
Publication : European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases

Nocardiosis in transplant recipients

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases - 23 Nov 2013

Lebeaux D, Morelon E, Suarez F, Lanternier F, Scemla A, Frange P, Mainardi JL, Lecuit M, Lortholary O

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 24272063

Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2014 May;33(5):689-702

Nocardiosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia spp., an aerobic actinomycete, that mainly affects patients with cell-mediated immunity defects, such as transplant recipients. Despite recent progress regarding Nocardia identification and changes in taxonomic assignment, many challenges remain for the diagnosis or management of nocardiosis. This opportunistic infection affects 0.04 to 3.5 % of patients with solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, depending on the organ transplanted, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, corticosteroids dose and calcineurin inhibitors level. Nocardiosis diagnosis relies on appropriate clinical, radiological and microbiological workup that includes the sampling of an accessible involved site and molecular microbiology tools. In parallel, extensive clinical and radiological evaluations are mandatory, including brain imaging, even in the absence of neurological signs. In transplanted patients, differential diagnosis is challenging, with co-infections reported in 20 to 64 % of cases. As the antibiotic susceptibility pattern varies among species, the antimicrobial regimen before species identification should rely on the association of antibiotics active on all species of Nocardia. Bactericidal antibiotics are required in cases of severe or disseminated disease. Furthermore, in transplant recipients, combination therapy is difficult to manage because of cumulative toxicity and interactions with immunosuppressive agents. Because of a high recurrence rate, antibiotic therapy should be prescribed for 6 to 12 months.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24272063