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© Research
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Diseases
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Published in Nature communications - 19 May 2016

Speer SD, Li Z, Buta S, Payelle-Brogard B, Qian L, Vigant F, Rubino E, Gardner TJ, Wedeking T, Hermann M, Duehr J, Sanal O, Tezcan I, Mansouri N, Tabarsi P, Mansouri D, Francois-Newton V, Daussy CF, Rodriguez MR, Lenschow DJ, Freiberg AN, Tortorella D, Piehler J, Lee B, García-Sastre A, Pellegrini S, Bogunovic D

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 27193971

Nat Commun 2016 05;7:11496

ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-induced ubiquitin-like protein. It exists as a free molecule, intracellularly and extracellularly, and conjugated to target proteins. Studies in mice have demonstrated a role for Isg15 in antiviral immunity. By contrast, human ISG15 was shown to have critical immune functions, but not in antiviral immunity. Namely, free extracellular ISG15 is crucial in IFN-γ-dependent antimycobacterial immunity, while free intracellular ISG15 is crucial for USP18-mediated downregulation of IFN-α/β signalling. Here we describe ISG15-deficient patients who display no enhanced susceptibility to viruses in vivo, in stark contrast to Isg15-deficient mice. Furthermore, fibroblasts derived from ISG15-deficient patients display enhanced antiviral protection, and expression of ISG15 attenuates viral resistance to WT control levels. The species-specific gain-of-function in antiviral immunity observed in ISG15 deficiency is explained by the requirement of ISG15 to sustain USP18 levels in humans, a mechanism not operating in mice.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193971