Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 36743010
Link to DOI – 10.1021/acsomega.2c07054
ACS Omega. 2023 Jan 20;8(4):4092-4105.
Skin cancer is a global health issue and mainly composed of melanoma and nonmelanoma cancers. For the first clinical proof of concept on humans, we decided to study good prognosis skin cancers, i.e., carcinoma basal cell. In UE, the first-line treatment remains surgical resection, healing most of the tumors, but presents aesthetic disadvantages with a high reoccurrence rate on exposed areas. Moreover, the therapeutic indications could extend to melanoma and metastasis, which is a different medical strategy that could combine this treatment. Indeed, patients with late-stage melanoma are in a therapeutic impasse, despite recent targeted and immunological therapies. Photothermal therapy using gold nanoparticles is the subject of many investigations due to their strong potential to treat cancers by physical, thermal destruction. We developed gold nanoparticles synthesized by green chemistry (gGNPs), using endemic plant extract from Reunion Island, which have previously showed their efficiency at a preclinical stage. Here, we demonstrate that these gGNPs are less cytotoxic than gold nanoparticles synthesized by Turkevich’s method. Furthermore, our work describes the optimization of gGNP coating and stabilization, also taking into consideration the gGNP path in cells (endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and exocytosis), their specificity toward cancerous cells, their cytotoxicity, and their in vivo efficiency. Finally, based on the metabolic switch of cancerous cells overexpressing Glut transporters in skin cancers, we demonstrated that glucose-stabilized gGNP (gGNP@G) enables a quick internalization, fourfold higher in cancerous cells in contrast to healthy cells with no side cytotoxicity, which is particularly relevant to target and treat cancer.