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© Michaela Muller-Trutwin
HIV
Publication : Nature communications

IL-21 and IFNα therapy rescues terminally differentiated NK cells and limits SIV reservoir in ART-treated macaques.

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Nature communications - 17 May 2021

Harper J, Huot N, Micci L, Tharp G, King C, Rascle P, Shenvi N, Wang H, Galardi C, Upadhyay AA, Villinger F, Lifson J, Silvestri G, Easley K, Jacquelin B, Bosinger S, Müller-Trutwin M, Paiardini M,

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 34001890

Link to DOI – 10.1038/s41467-021-23189-7

Nat Commun 2021 05; 12(1): 2866

Unlike HIV infection, which progresses to AIDS absent suppressive anti-retroviral therapy, nonpathogenic infections in natural hosts, such African green monkeys, are characterized by a lack of gut microbial translocation and robust secondary lymphoid natural killer cell responses resulting in an absence of chronic inflammation and limited SIV dissemination in lymph node B-cell follicles. Here we report, using the pathogenic model of antiretroviral therapy-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques that sequential interleukin-21 and interferon alpha therapy generate terminally differentiated blood natural killer cells (NKG2a/clowCD16+) with potent human leukocyte antigen-E-restricted activity in response to SIV envelope peptides. This is in contrast to control macaques, where less differentiated, interferon gamma-producing natural killer cells predominate. The frequency and activity of terminally differentiated NKG2a/clowCD16+ natural killer cells correlates with a reduction of replication-competent SIV in lymph node during antiretroviral therapy and time to viral rebound following analytical treatment interruption. These data demonstrate that African green monkey-like natural killer cell differentiation profiles can be rescued in rhesus macaques to promote viral clearance in tissues.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34001890