Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 20224597
Cell Death Differ. 2010 Sep;17(9):1474-85
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) causes inflammation and cell injury as a result of activating innate immune signaling. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a key role in mediating kidney damages during IRI, but the downstream signaling pathway(s) stimulating apoptosis remains debated. In this study we show that TLR4 mediates MyD88-dependent activation of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinases in ischemic-reperfused kidneys and posthypoxic renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs). Hypoxia stimulated the expression of the endoplasmic-resident gp96, which co-immunoprecipitated TLR4, whereas silencing gp96 mRNA expression impaired hypoxia-induced apoptosis in TLR4-expressing RTECs. NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (NOX4) was shown to interact with TLR4 and to be required in lipopolysaccharide-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). IRI stimulated the expression of a 28-kDa NOX4 spliced isoform abundantly expressed in wild-type RTECs, which co-immunoprecipitated with TLR4, but not with gp96 in TLR4-deficient RTECs. Silencing NOX4 mRNA expression impaired hypoxia-induced activation of ASK1 and both JNK and p38, leading to the inhibition of ROS production and apoptosis in posthypoxic TLR4-expressing RTECs. These findings show that, concomitantly to the activation of p38, the gp96/TLR4 interaction is required for activation of ASK1/JNK signaling in posthypoxic mouse RTECs, and that the 28-kDa NOX4 has a key role in TLR4-mediated apoptosis during renal IRI.