Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 34906734
Link to DOI – 10.1016/j.bbapap.2021.140745S1570-9639(21)00151-5
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2022 Feb; 1870(2): 140745
Bacteriophage endolysins are crucial for progeny release at the end of the lytic cycle. Mycobacteriophage’s genomes carry a lysin A essential gene, whose product cleaves the peptidoglycan (PG) layer and a lysin B, coding for an esterase, that cleaves the linkage between the mycolic acids and the arabinogalactan-PG complex. Lysin A mycobacteriophage proteins are highly modular and in gp29 (LysA) of phage TM4 three distinctive domains were identified. By bioinformatics analysis the central module was previously found to be similar to an amidase-2 domain family with an N-acetylmuramoyl -L-alanine amidase activity. We demonstrated experimentally that purified LysA is able to lyse a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and can promote cell lysis when expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. After incubation of LysA with MDP (Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) we detected the presence of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAcMur) and L-Ala- D- isoGlutamine (L-Ala-D-isoGln) corroborating the proposed muramidase activity of this enzyme. This protein was stabilized at acidic pH in the presence of Zn consistent with the increase of the enzymatic activity under these conditions. By homology modeling, we predicted that the Zn ion is coordinated by His 226, His 335, and Asp 347 and we also identified the amino acid Glu 290 as the catalytic residue. LysA activity was completely abolished in derived mutants on these key residues, suggesting that the PG hydrolysis solely relies on the central domain of the protein.