Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 31298207
Microbiol Spectr 2019 Jul;7(4)
The causative agent of human tuberculosis, , has a complex lipid-rich diderm envelope, which acts as a major barrier protecting the bacterium against the hostile environment inside the host cells. For the transfer of diverse molecules across this complex cell envelope, has a series of general and specialized protein secretion systems, characterized by the SecA general secretion pathway, the twin-arginine translocation pathway, and five specific ESX type VII secretion systems. In this review, we focus on the latter systems, known as ESX-1 to ESX-5, which were first discovered almost 20 years ago during the analysis of the genome sequence of H37Rv. Since then, these systems have been the subject of highly dynamic research due to their involvement in several key biological processes and host-pathogen interactions of the tubercle bacilli.