Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 31111906
Link to DOI – 10.1093/mmy/myz039
Med. Mycol. 2020 Feb; 58(2): 156-162
Invasive fungal diseases are increasing issues in modern medicine, where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic and the wider use of immunosuppressive drugs generate an ever-growing number of immunocompromised patients with an increased susceptibility to uncommon fungal pathogens. In the past decade, new species have been reported as being responsible for disseminated and invasive fungal diseases in humans. Among them, the following genera are rare but seem emerging issues: Scopulariopsis, Hormographiella, Emergomyces, Westerdykella, Trametes, Actinomucor, Saksenaea, Apophysomyces, and Rhytidhysteron. Delay in diagnosis, which is often the case in these infections, jeopardizes patients’ prognosis and leads to increased mortality. Here we summarize the clinical and biological presentation and the key features to identify these emerging pathogens and we discuss the available antifungal classes to treat them. We focused on Pubmed to recover extensively reported human invasive cases and articles regarding the nine previously cited fungal organisms. Information concerning patient background, macroscopic and microscopic description and pictures of these fungal organisms, histological features in tissues, findings with commonly used antigen tests in practice, and hints on potential efficient antifungal classes were gathered. This review’s purpose is to help clinical microbiologists and physicians to suspect, identify, diagnose, and treat newly encountered fungi in hospital settings.