Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 19349300
Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009 Jun;29(12):3435-50
Differential expression of the human interferon A (IFN-A) gene cluster is modulated following paramyxovirus infection by the relative amounts of active interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7. IRF-3 expression activates predominantly IFN-A1 and IFN-B, while IRF-7 expression induces multiple IFN-A genes. IFN-A1 gene expression is dependent on three promoter proximal IRF elements (B, C, and D modules, located at positions -98 to -45 relative to the mRNA start site). IRF-3 binds the C module of IFN-A1, while other IFN-A gene promoters are responsive to the binding of IRF-7 to the B and D modules. Maximal expression of IFN-A1 is observed with complete occupancy of the three modules in the presence of IRF-7. Nucleotide substitutions in the C modules of other IFN-A genes disrupt IRF-3-mediated transcription, whereas a G/A substitution in the D modules enhances IRF7-mediated expression. IRF-3 exerts dual effects on IFN-A gene expression, as follows: a synergistic effect with IRF-7 on IFN-A1 expression and an inhibitory effect on other IFN-A gene promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that transient binding of both IRF-3 and IRF-7, accompanied by CBP/p300 recruitment to the endogenous IFN-A gene promoters, is associated with transcriptional activation, whereas a biphasic recruitment of IRF-3 and CBP/p300 represses IFN-A gene expression. This regulatory mechanism contributes to differential expression of IFN-A genes and may be critical for alpha interferon production in different cell types by RIG-I-dependent signals, leading to innate antiviral immune responses.