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© Research
Publication : Comptes rendus biologies

Dangerous liaisons: human genetic adaptation to infectious agents.

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Comptes rendus biologies - 04 Feb 2021

Quintana-Murci L,

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 33621457

Link to DOI – 10.5802/crbiol.30

C R Biol 2021 Feb; 343(3): 297-309

The study of the demographic and adaptive history of Homo sapiens has entered its golden age with the advent of genome-wide approaches. The analyses of genome diversity across different human populations have allowed us to better understand the ways in which our species rapidly dispersed around the world, how our ancestors admixed with archaic, now-extinct hominins, and the effects of natural selection on the diversity of the human genome. This work has, in turn, made it possible to increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms by which humans have adapted to the wide range of environments they have encountered. These studies, combined with functional genomics approaches, have helped to identify genes and biological functions of key importance for host survival against pathogens and involved in the phenotypic variability of our species, including the risk to develop infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.L’étude de l’histoire démographique et adaptative d’Homo sapiens est entrée dans son âge d’or avec l’arrivée des approches pan-génomiques. L’analyse de la variabilité du génome à travers différentes populations humaines a permis de mieux comprendre la façon dont notre espèce a peuplé la planète en un temps record, l’histoire du métissage de nos ancêtres avec d’autres hominidés, et l’influence de la sélection naturelle sur la diversité du génome humain. Ces travaux, à leur tour, ont permis de mieux appréhender les mécanismes génétiques par lesquels l’Homme a pu s’adapter au large éventail d’environnements dans lequel il vit. Ces études, combinées à des approches en génomique fonctionnelle, ont aidé à l’identification des gènes et des fonctions biologiques de première importance pour la survie de l’hôte face aux pathogènes et impliqués dans la variabilité phénotypique de notre espèce, y compris le risque de développer des maladies infectieuses, auto-immunes et inflammatoires.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33621457