Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30031154
Eur J Med Genet 2019 Mar;62(3):217-223
Retinoblastoma (Rb) results from biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene. Hereditary Rb patients i. e germline carriers of a RB1 mutation also have a risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) such as osteosarcomas. This SMN risk is maximized by external beam radiotherapy treatments (EBRT), which is why these treatments are now avoided. Nevertheless, EBRT is still a matter of great concern, as EBRT-treated patients are in their adulthood and SMNs remain the major cause of death for patients. To decipher the relationship between RB1 genotype and SMN development in EBRT treated patients, we conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 160 irradiated hereditary Rbs with fully resolved RB1 mutational status. Median follow-up was 22 years [1-51] and median age of patients was 27 years old [7-53]. Among these 160 Rb patients, 120 did not develop any SMN (75%) and 40 developed SMNs (25%). The age at which EBRT is given (i.e. before or after the age of 12 months) was not correlated to SMN development (p = 0.6). We didn’t find any difference in RB1 mutation type between patients with or without SMN, neither could we detect any linkage between mutation type and SMN location, SMN type and age at diagnosis. Interestingly, among 13 carriers of a RB1 low penetrance mutation, 3 of them developed sarcomas, a rare tumor that cannot be attributed to the general population. Our study cannot explain why a RB1 mutation leads or not to a SMN but demonstrated that EBRT patients with a low penetrance mutation remain at risk of SMN and should be cautiously monitored.