Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30030795
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2018;1075:213-239
The era of antiretroviral therapy has made HIV-1 infection a manageable chronic disease for those with access to treatment. Despite treatment, virus persists in tissue reservoirs seeded with long-lived infected cells that are resistant to cell death and immune recognition. Which cells contribute to this reservoir and which factors determine their persistence are central questions that need to be answered to achieve viral eradication. In this chapter, we describe how cell susceptibility to infection, resistance to cell death, and immune-mediated killing as well as natural cell life span and turnover potential are central components that allow persistence of different lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets that were recently identified as key players in harboring latent and actively replicating virus. The relative contribution of these subsets to persistence of viral reservoir is described, and the open questions are highlighted.