Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 22214774
Link to DOI – 10.1128/AAC.06233-11
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012 Mar; 56(3): 1376-81
We investigated the efficiency of the cephamycin cefoxitin as an alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The susceptible, UTI-inducing E. coli CFT073-RR strain and its transconjugant CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)), harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) carrying-plasmid, were used for all experiments. MICs of cefoxitin (FOX), ceftriaxone (CRO), imipenem (IMP), and ertapenem (ETP) for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)) were 4 and 4, 0.125 and 512, 0.5 and 0.5, and 0.016 and 0.032 μg/ml, respectively. Bactericidal activity was similarly achieved in vitro against the two strains after 3 h of exposure to concentrations of FOX, IMI, and ETP that were 2 times the MIC, whereas CRO was not bactericidal against CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)). The frequencies of spontaneous mutants of the 2 strains were not higher for FOX than for IMP or ETP. In the murine model of UTIs, mice infected for 5 days were treated over 24 h. Therapeutic regimens in mice (200 mg/kg of body weight every 3 h or 4 h for FOX, 70 mg/kg every 6 h for CRO, 100 mg/kg every 2 h for IMP, and 100 mg/kg every 4 h for ETP) were chosen in order to reproduce the percentage of time that free-drug concentrations above the MIC are obtained in humans with standard regimens. All antibiotic regimens produced a significant reduction in bacterial counts (greater than 2 log(10) CFU) in kidneys and bladders for both strains (P < 0.001) without selecting resistant mutants in vivo, but the reduction obtained with CRO against CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)) in kidneys was significantly lower than that obtained with FOX. In conclusion, FOX appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTIs due to CTX-M-producing E. coli.