Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 36631813
Link to DOI – 10.1186/s12958-022-01045-7
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2023 Jan; 21(1): 2
Forty-six ,XY Differences/Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from typical female to male with undervirilized external genitalia, or more rarely testicular regression with a typical male phenotype. Despite progress in the genetic diagnosis of DSD, most 46,XY DSD cases remain idiopathic.To determine the genetic causes of 46,XY DSD, we studied 165 patients of Tunisian ancestry, who presented a wide range of DSD phenotypes. Karyotyping, candidate gene sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) were performed.Cytogenetic abnormalities, including a high frequency of sex chromosomal anomalies (85.4%), explained the phenotype in 30.9% (51/165) of the cohort. Sanger sequencing of candidate genes identified a novel pathogenic variant in the SRY gene in a patient with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. An exome screen of a sub-group of 44 patients with 46,XY DSD revealed pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 38.6% (17/44) of patients.Rare or novel pathogenic variants were identified in the AR, SRD5A2, ZNRF3, SOX8, SOX9 and HHAT genes. Overall our data indicate a genetic diagnosis rate of 41.2% (68/165) in the group of 46,XY DSD.