Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 18054122
Rev Med Interne 2008 Jan; 29(1): 15-27
Granulomatous diseases are defined by specific histological features, following the local recruitment of macrophages and lymphocytes. Many infections can lead to the development of granuloma.Microorganisms responsible for granuloma include mainly mycobacteria, many viral and fungal species, as well as schistosoma in endemic areas. Nevertheless, almost all microorganisms can lead to granuloma, especially if their clearance needs macrophages pathway. New immunosuppressive drugs such as tumor necrosis factor antagonists are associated with a high risk of infectious granulomatous complications. All patients with granuloma must be carefully screened to find a potential underlying infection, since an immunosuppressive therapy could be otherwise considered. We here review the general diagnostic process with a specific glance to the main organs.Without clinical or epidemiological clue, diagnosis can be very tedious. New molecular tools now assist classical microbiological and histological techniques. Their specificity and sensitivity have recently been better characterized, and their use will probably increase in the near future for the diagnosis of infectious granuloma. They may also lead to discover new infectious aetiologies of granulomatous diseases formerly considered as idiopathic. We describe here the main microorganisms that can be responsible for granuloma, with a specific focus on the use of new diagnostic tools.