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© Andres Alcover
Scanning electron microscopy showing a conjugate formed between a T lymphocyte and an antigen presenting cell. It is worth noting the long shape of the T cell (Tc) polarized towards the antigen presenting cell (APC) and the membrane protrusions that adhere the T lymphocyte to the antigen presenting cell.
Publication : The EMBO journal

ZAP-70 kinase regulates HIV cell-to-cell spread and virological synapse formation

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in The EMBO journal - 11 Jan 2007

Sol-Foulon N, Sourisseau M, Porrot F, Thoulouze MI, Trouillet C, Nobile C, Blanchet F, di Bartolo V, Noraz N, Taylor N, Alcover A, Hivroz C, Schwartz O

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 17215865

EMBO J. 2007 Jan;26(2):516-26

HIV efficiently spreads in lymphocytes, likely through virological synapses (VSs). These cell-cell junctions share some characteristics with immunological synapses, but cellular proteins required for their constitution remain poorly characterized. We have examined here the role of ZAP-70, a key kinase regulating T-cell activation and immunological synapse formation, in HIV replication. In lymphocytes deficient for ZAP-70, or expressing a kinase-dead mutant of the protein, HIV replication was strikingly delayed. We have characterized further this replication defect. ZAP-70 was dispensable for the early steps of viral cycle, from entry to expression of viral proteins. However, in the absence of ZAP-70, intracellular Gag localization was impaired. ZAP-70 was required in infected donor cells for efficient cell-to-cell HIV transmission to recipients and for formation of VSs. These results bring novel insights into the links that exist between T-cell activation and HIV spread, and suggest that HIV usurps components of the immunological synapse machinery to ensure its own spread through cell-to-cell contacts.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17215865