Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 37747798
Link to DOI – 10.1080/14760584.2023.2262563
Expert Rev Vaccines 2023 Sep; ():
The influenza vaccine administrated every year is a recommended infection control procedure for individuals above the age of six months. However, the effectiveness of repeated annual vaccination is still an active research topic. Therefore, we investigated the vaccine immunogenicity in two independent groups: previously vaccinated versus non-vaccinated individuals at three time points; prior vaccination, one week and three months post vaccination. The assessment enabled us to evaluate the elicited immune responses and the durability of the induced protection in both groups.A research study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity of a single dose of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B) in 278 healthy adults aged between 32 and 66 years. Almost half of the participants, 140 (50·36%), received influenza vaccination at least once precursor to past influenza seasons. One blood sample was taken prior to vaccination for complete blood analysis and baseline immunogenicity assessment. The selected study participants received a single vaccine dose on the first day, and then followed up for three months. Two blood samples were taken after one week and three months post vaccination, respectively, for vaccine immunogenicity assessment.Before vaccination, the seroprotection, defined as a hemagglutination-inhibiting titer of =>1:40, was detected for the three vaccine virus strains in 20 previously vaccinated participants (14·29%) [8·95%, 21·2%]. We compared the overall vaccine response for the three virus strains using a normalized response score calculated from linearly transformed titer measurements; the score before vaccination was 84% higher in the previously vaccinated group and the mean difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Three months post-vaccination, we didn’t find a significant difference in vaccine responses; the number of fully seroprotected individuals became 48 (34·29%) [26·48%, 42·77%] in the previously vaccinated group and 59 (42·75%) [34·37%, 51·45%] in the non-vaccinated group. The calculated response score was almost equal in both groups and the mean difference was no longer statistically significant.Our findings suggest that a single dose of influenza vaccine is equally protective after three months for annually vaccinated adults and first-time vaccine receivers.