Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 26154056
Cell Metab. 2015 Jul;22(1):100-12
A high-fat diet (HFD) induces metabolic disease and low-grade metabolic inflammation in response to changes in the intestinal microbiota through as-yet-unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that a HFD-derived ileum microbiota is responsible for a decrease in Th17 cells of the lamina propria in axenic colonized mice. The HFD also changed the expression profiles of intestinal antigen-presenting cells and their ability to generate Th17 cells in vitro. Consistent with these data, the metabolic phenotype was mimicked in RORγt-deficient mice, which lack IL17 and IL22 function, and in the adoptive transfer experiment of T cells from RORγt-deficient mice into Rag1-deficient mice. We conclude that the microbiota of the ileum regulates Th17 cell homeostasis in the small intestine and determines the outcome of metabolic disease.