Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 29072555
Virulence. 2017 Dec 26:1-14. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1393600. [Epub ahead of print]
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, formerly classified as S. bovis biotype I, is an increasing cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis in the elderly. The physiopathology of infective endocarditis is poorly understood and involves immune and coagulation systems. In this study, we found that S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus activates the human contact system, which in turn has two consequences: cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) resulting in release of the potent pro-inflammatory peptide bradykinin, and initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus was found to bind and activate factors of the human contact system at its surface, leading to a significant prolongation of the intrinsic coagulation time and to the release of bradykinin. High-affinity binding of factor XII to the bacterial Pil1 collagen binding protein was demonstrated with a KD of 13 nM. Of note, Pil1 expression was exclusively found in S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, further supporting an essential contribution of this pilus in virulence.