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© Michaela Muller-Trutwin
HIV
Publication : Nature communications

Species-specific host factors rather than virus-intrinsic virulence determine primate lentiviral pathogenicity

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Nature communications - 10 Apr 2018

Joas S, Parrish EH, Gnanadurai CW, Lump E, Stürzel CM, Parrish NF, Learn GH, Sauermann U, Neumann B, Rensing KM, Fuchs D, Billingsley JM, Bosinger SE, Silvestri G, Apetrei C, Huot N, Garcia-Tellez T, Müller-Trutwin M, Hotter D, Sauter D, Stahl-Hennig C, Hahn BH, Kirchhoff F

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 29636452

Nat Commun 2018 04;9(1):1371

HIV-1 causes chronic inflammation and AIDS in humans, whereas related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) replicate efficiently in their natural hosts without causing disease. It is currently unknown to what extent virus-specific properties are responsible for these different clinical outcomes. Here, we incorporate two putative HIV-1 virulence determinants, i.e., a Vpu protein that antagonizes tetherin and blocks NF-κB activation and a Nef protein that fails to suppress T cell activation via downmodulation of CD3, into a non-pathogenic SIVagm strain and test their impact on viral replication and pathogenicity in African green monkeys. Despite sustained high-level viremia over more than 4 years, moderately increased immune activation and transcriptional signatures of inflammation, the HIV-1-like SIVagm does not cause immunodeficiency or any other disease. These data indicate that species-specific host factors rather than intrinsic viral virulence factors determine the pathogenicity of primate lentiviruses.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29636452