Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 16174110
Immunol Cell Biol 2005 Oct; 83(5): 578-83
The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in anti-HIV immunity is mostly represented by the production of type I IFN in response to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. This production is decreased in HIV-1 infected patients at the time of primary infection and during chronic disease in association with progression of disease. Circulating pDC counts are decreased concomitantly with type I IFN, and both factors correlate inversely overall with viral loads and positively with CD4+ T-cell counts. These parameters might be used in clinical immunology to monitor treatment and as predictive factors of immune control of HIV-1 replication to help decide whether to interrupt antiretroviral treatment. They may be related to control of HIV replication as well as to pathogenesis of infection, perhaps in setting the balance between immunity or tolerance to the virus. A better understanding of these parameters is required while attempts to use IFN-alpha or ligands of Toll-like receptors found on pDC are being made.