Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 21870564
Med Trop (Mars) 2011 Jun;71(3):298-304
The purpose of this review was to provide up-to-date information on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the main antimalarials used in Madagascar and to assist implementation of the malaria control and elimination program. In 2006, the failure rate for chloroquine treatment was 44% (n = 300) and was comparable to the rate observed in continental Africa. Most treatment failures occurred after the first week of follow-up. P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine appeared to be special in Madagascar with only 3.2% of isolates showing in vitro resistance (n = 372, 7 sentinel sites) and less than 1% harbouring mutant parasites within the Pfcrt gene. Conversely, the Pfmdr1 N86Y point mutation was found in 64.3% (n = 174) of isolates in 2006 and in 51.7% (n = 343) in 2007. Failure of combined sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine therapy, i.e., the recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, and in vitro resistance to pyrimethamine were rare. However, the Pfdhfr 51I/59R/108N allele showed consistently high prevalence levels reaching 33.3% in 2008. Moreover, the single Pfdhfr 164L mutant allele, a haplotype unique to Madagascar, was discovered in 2006 and showed prevalence rates up to 30% in some locations (southeast) in 2008. Up to now, the quadruple mutant allele Pfdhfr 51I/59R/108N/164L has not been observed. Susceptibility to the other antimalarials tested appeared excellent but the number of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives has been fallen in recent years and this decline may herald a decrease in the efficacy of these drugs.