Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 36231066
Link to DOI – 310410.3390/cells11193104
Cells 2022 Oct; 11(19):
During chronic SIV/HIV infection, adipose tissue (AT) is the target of both antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the virus. AT might subsequently contribute to the low-grade systemic inflammation observed in patients on ART. To evaluate the inflammatory profile of AT during chronic SIV/HIV infection, we assayed subcutaneous and visceral abdominal AT from non-infected (SIV-, control), ART-naïve SIV-infected (SIV+) and ART-controlled SIV-infected (SIV+ART+) cynomolgus macaques for the mRNA expression of genes coding for factors related to inflammation. Significant differences were observed only when comparing the SIV+ART+ group with the SIV+ and/or SIV- groups. ART-treated infection impacted the metabolic fraction (with elevated expression of PPARγ and CEBPα), the extracellular matrix (with elevated expression of COL1A2 and HIF-1α), and the inflammatory profile. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory signatures were detected in AT, with greater mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory markers (adiponectin and CD163) and markers associated with inflammation (TNF-α, Mx1, CCL5 and CX3CL1). There were no intergroup differences in other markers (IL-6 and MCP-1). In conclusion, we observed marked differences in the immune and metabolic profiles of AT in the context of an ART-treated, chronic SIV infection; these differences were related more to ART than to SIV infection per se.