Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 32897324
Link to DOI – fuaa04410.1093/femsre/fuaa044
FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 2020 Sep; ():
Microbiota, and the plethora of signalling molecules that they generate, are a major driving force that underlies a striking range of inter-individual physioanatomic and behavioural consequences for the host organism. Among the bacterial effectors, one finds peptidoglycan, the major constituent of the bacterial cell surface. In the steady-state, fragments of peptidoglycan are constitutively liberated from bacterial members of the gut microbiota, cross the gut epithelial barrier and enter the host system. The fate of these peptidoglycan fragments, and the outcome for the host, depends on the molecular nature of the peptidoglycan, as well the cellular profile of the recipient tissue, mechanism of cell entry, the expression of specific processing and recognition mechanisms by the cell, and the local immune context. At the target level, physiological processes modulated by peptidoglycan are extremely diverse, ranging from immune activation to small molecule metabolism, autophagy and apoptosis. In this review, we bring together a fragmented body of literature on the kinetics and dynamics of peptidoglycan interactions with the mammalian host, explaining how peptidoglycan functions as a signaling molecule in the host under physiological conditions, how it disseminates within the host, and the cellular responses to peptidoglycan.