Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 19997562
PLoS ONE 2009;4(12):e8159
BACKGROUND: Obtaining a certain multi-functionality of cellular immunity for the control of infectious diseases is a burning question in immunology and in vaccine design. Early events, including antigen shuttling to secondary lymphoid organs and recruitment of innate immune cells for adaptive immune response, determine host responsiveness to antigens. However, the sequence of these events and their impact on the quality of the immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we chose to study Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) which is now replacing live Smallpox vaccines and is proposed as an attenuated vector for vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vivo mechanisms triggered following intradermal (i.d.) and intramuscular (i.m.) Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) administration. We demonstrated significant differences in the antigen shuttling to lymphoid organs by macrophages (MPhis), myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and neutrophils (PMNs). MVA i.d. administration resulted in better antigen distribution and more sustained antigen-presenting cells (APCs) recruitment into draining lymph nodes than with i.m. administration. These APCs, which comprise both DCs and MPhis, were differentially involved in T cell priming and shaped remarkably the quality of cytokine-producing virus-specific T cells according to the entry route of MVA.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms of antigen delivery and their consequences on the quality of immune responses and provides new insights for vaccine development.