Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 35974169
Link to DOI – 10.1038/s41581-022-00608-6
Nat Rev Nephrol 2022 Aug; ():
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by degrading or repressing the translation of their target messenger RNAs. As miRNAs are critical regulators of cellular homeostasis, their dysregulation is a crucial component of cell and organ injury. A substantial body of evidence indicates that miRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease and allograft damage. Different subsets of miRNAs are dysregulated during AKI, chronic kidney disease and allograft rejection, which could reflect differences in the physiopathology of these conditions. miRNAs that have been investigated in AKI include miR-21, which has an anti-apoptotic role, and miR-214 and miR-668, which regulate mitochondrial dynamics. Various miRNAs are downregulated in diabetic kidney disease, including the miR-30 family and miR-146a, which protect against inflammation and fibrosis. Other miRNAs such as miR-193 and miR-92a induce podocyte dedifferentiation in glomerulonephritis. In transplantation, miRNAs have been implicated in allograft rejection and injury. Further work is needed to identify and validate miRNAs as biomarkers of graft function and of kidney disease development and progression. Use of combinations of miRNAs together with other molecular markers could potentially improve diagnostic or predictive power and facilitate clinical translation. In addition, targeting specific miRNAs at different stages of disease could be a promising therapeutic strategy.