Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 16364667
Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2006 Jan-Feb;36(1):1-9
The mechanisms underlying the swelling of frog red blood cells (RBC), induced by Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins (CTXs), were investigated by measuring the length, width and surface of their elliptic shape. P-CTX-1 (0.5 to 5 nM) and C-CTX-1 (1 nM) induced RBC swelling within 60 min. The CTXs-induced RBC swelling was blocked by apamin (1 microM) and by Sr(2+) (1 mM). P-CTX-1-induced RBC swelling was prevented and inhibited by H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (27 microM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and NOS blockade by NG methyl-l-arginine (l-NMA; 10 microM). Cytochalasin D (cytD, 10 microM) increased RBC surface and mimicked CTX effect but did not prevent the P-CTX-1-induced l-NMA-sensitive extra increase. Calculations revealed that P-CTX-1 and cytD increase RBC total surface envelop and volume. These data strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying CTXs-induced RBC swelling involve the NO pathway by an activation of the inducible NOS, leading to sGC activation which modulates intracellular cGMP and regulates L-type Ca(2+) channels. The resulting increase in intracellular Ca(2+) content, in turn, disrupts the actin cytoskeleton, which causes a water influx and triggers a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current through SK2 isoform channels.