Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 37352110
Link to DOI – 10.1093/jac/dkad194
J Antimicrob Chemother 2023 Aug; 78(8): 1992-1999
Fidaxomicin is a first-line treatment for Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). Fidaxomicin resistance has rarely been reported in this urgent antimicrobial resistance threat as defined by the CDC.To report a case of fidaxomicin-resistant C. difficile isolation in a patient treated by fidaxomicin, characterize the genetic determinant for resistance and the consequences on pathophysiological traits, and review the literature.A 38-year-old male patient with several risk factors for CDI experienced three episodes of hospital-acquired CDI and received fidaxomicin for the first episode. The successive isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization (antimicrobial susceptibility, growth, sporulation ability and toxin production) and WGS analysis to evaluate clonality and modifications associated with resistance.Resistance to fidaxomicin arose in isolates from the recurrences of CDI (MIC: 16 mg/L). WGS analysis showed a close genetic link between strains suggestive of relapses in this patient. A T3428G mutation in the rpoB gene might be associated with fidaxomicin resistance. The resistance was associated with defects in growth, sporulation and production of toxins. A review of the literature found only three previous fidaxomicin-resistant C. difficile clinical strains.Although rarely reported, resistance to fidaxomicin may quickly emerge in vivo after a single course of treatment. This observation supports the need for prospective surveillance of the susceptibility of C. difficile to treatment antibiotics. However, the clinical relevance of fidaxomicin resistance still needs to be elucidated, particularly due to its apparent rareness and associated fitness cost.