Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 32764670
Link to DOI – 10.1038/s41577-020-0381-7
Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2021 Jan;21(1):5-19
Antiretroviral therapies efficiently block HIV-1 replication but need to be maintained for life. Moreover, chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV-1 infection that persists despite treatment. There is, therefore, an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms driving HIV-1 pathogenesis and to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. In the past few years, the decisive role of cellular metabolism in the fate and activity of immune cells has been uncovered, as well as its impact on the outcome of infectious diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that immunometabolism has a key role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. The metabolic pathways of CD4+ T cells and macrophages determine their susceptibility to infection, the persistence of infected cells and the establishment of latency. Immunometabolism also shapes immune responses against HIV-1, and cell metabolic products are key drivers of inflammation during infection. In this Review, we summarize current knowledge of the links between HIV-1 infection and immunometabolism, and we discuss the potential opportunities and challenges for therapeutic interventions.