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© Research
Publication : Science

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4⁺ T cells

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Science - 23 Apr 2015

Hepworth MR, Fung TC, Masur SH, Kelsen JR, McConnell FM, Dubrot J, Withers DR, Hugues S, Farrar MA, Reith W, Eberl G, Baldassano RN, Laufer TM, Elson CO, Sonnenberg GF

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 25908663

Science 2015 May;348(6238):1031-5

Inflammatory CD4(+) T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. Although selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to mammalian tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells and that MHCII(+) ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T cells in the intestine and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908663