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© Institut Pasteur
Corne d'Ammon (ou hippocampe) de renard atteint de rage sauvage. Coloration avec un conjugué fluorescent sur la nucléocapside du virus.
Publication : Blood

HIV-1 reprograms the migration of macrophages

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Blood - 19 Dec 2014

Vérollet C, Souriant S, Bonnaud E, Jolicoeur P, Raynaud-Messina B, Kinnaer C, Fourquaux I, Imle A, Benichou S, Fackler OT, Poincloux R, Maridonneau-Parini I

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 25527710

Blood 2015 Mar;125(10):1611-22

Macrophages are motile leukocytes, targeted by HIV-1, thought to play a critical role in host dissemination of the virus. However, whether infection impacts their migration capacity remains unknown. We show that 2-dimensional migration and the 3-dimensional (3D) amoeboid migration mode of HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages were inhibited, whereas the 3D mesenchymal migration was enhanced. The viral protein Nef was necessary and sufficient for all HIV-1-mediated effects on migration. In Nef transgenic mice, tissue infiltration of macrophages was increased in a tumor model and in several tissues at steady state, suggesting a dominant role for mesenchymal migration in vivo. The mesenchymal motility involves matrix proteolysis and podosomes, cell structures constitutive of monocyte-derived cells. Focusing on the mechanisms used by HIV-1 Nef to control the mesenchymal migration, we show that the stability, size, and proteolytic function of podosomes are increased via the phagocyte-specific kinase Hck and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), 2 major regulators of podosomes. In conclusion, HIV-1 reprograms macrophage migration, which likely explains macrophage accumulation in several patient tissues, which is a key step for virus spreading and pathogenesis. Moreover, Nef points out podosomes and the Hck/WASP signaling pathway as good candidates to control tissue infiltration of macrophages, a detrimental phenomenon in several diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527710