Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30866775
Emerg Microbes Infect 2019;8(1):218-231
The yellow fever virus (YFV) caused a severe outbreak in Brazil in 2016-2018 that rapidly spread across the Atlantic Forest in its most populated region without viral circulation for almost 80 years. A comprehensive entomological survey combining analysis of distribution, abundance and YFV natural infection in mosquitoes captured before and during the outbreak was conducted in 44 municipalities of five Brazilian states. In total, 17,662 mosquitoes of 89 species were collected. Before evidence of virus circulation, mosquitoes were tested negative but traditional vectors were alarmingly detected in 82% of municipalities, revealing high receptivity to sylvatic transmission. During the outbreak, five species were found positive in 42% of municipalities. Haemagogus janthinomys and Hg. leucocelaenus are considered the primary vectors due to their large distribution combined with high abundance and natural infection rates, concurring together for the rapid spread and severity of this outbreak. Aedes taeniorhynchus was found infected for the first time, but like Sabethes chloropterus and Aedes scapularis, it appears to have a potential local or secondary role because of their low abundance, distribution and infection rates. There was no evidence of YFV transmission by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, although the former was the most widespread species across affected municipalities, presenting an important overlap between the niches of the sylvatic vectors and the anthropic ones. The definition of receptive areas, expansion of vaccination in the most affected age group and exposed populations and the adoption of universal vaccination to the entire Brazilian population need to be urgently implemented.